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  1. The systematic, complete and correct reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks or metabolic pathways is one of the most challenging tasks in systems biology research. An essential requirement is the ac...

    Authors: Maren Lang, Michael Stelzer and Dietmar Schomburg

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:42

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Insulin is a hormone that regulates blood glucose homeostasis and is a central protein in a medical condition termed insulin injection amyloidosis. It is intimately associated with glycaemia and is vulnerable ...

    Authors: Luis MA Oliveira, Ana Lages, Ricardo A Gomes, Henrique Neves, Carlos Família, Ana V Coelho and Alexandre Quintas

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:41

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The two variants of the α-form of the catalytic (C) subunit of protein kinase A (PKA), designated Cα1 and Cα2, are encoded by the PRKACA gene. Whereas Cα1 is ubiquitous, Cα2 expression is restricted to the sperm ...

    Authors: Maike M Vetter, Hans-M Zenn, Eva Méndez, Heidrun van den Boom, Friedrich W Herberg and Bjørn S Skålhegg

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:40

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Animal African trypanosomiasis, sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in cattle, is a resurgent disease in Africa caused by Trypanosoma parasites. Trans-sialidases expressed by trypanosomes play an important rol...

    Authors: Hendrik Koliwer-Brandl, Thaddeus T Gbem, Mario Waespy, Olga Reichert, Philipp Mandel, Eric Drebitz, Frank Dietz and Sørge Kelm

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:39

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Angiogenesis is the process of forming new blood vessels from existing ones and requires degradation of the vascular basement membrane and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in order to allow endothelial...

    Authors: Rena Brauer, Inken M Beck, Martin Roderfeld, Elke Roeb and Radislav Sedlacek

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:38

    Content type: Research article

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  6. After the publication of the work entitled "Dermatan sulfate in tunicate phylogeny: Order-specific sulfation pattern and the effect of [→4IdoA(2-Sulfate)β-1→3GalNAc(4-Sulfate)β-1→] motifs in dermatan sulfate o...

    Authors: Eliene O Kozlowski, Paula C Lima, Cristina P Vicente, Tito Lotufo, Xingfeng Bao, Kazuyuki Sugahara and Mauro SG Pavão

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:37

    Content type: Erratum

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    The original article was published in BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:29

  7. The kinome comprises functionally diverse enzymes, with the current classification indicating very little about the extent of conserved regulatory mechanisms associated with phosphoryl transfer. The apparent Km o...

    Authors: Colin P Kenyon, Anjo Steyn, Robyn L Roth, Paul A Steenkamp, Thokozani C Nkosi and Lyndon C Oldfield

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:36

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is a ubiquitous enzyme in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which catalyzes co-translational removal of N-terminal methionine from elongating polypeptide chains during protein ...

    Authors: Pavitra Kanudia, Monica Mittal, Sangaralingam Kumaran and Pradip K Chakraborti

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:35

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The involvement of histone acetylation in facilitating gene expression is well-established, particularly in the case of histones H3 and H4. It was previously shown in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that gene expression...

    Authors: Mzwanele Ngubo, Gabré Kemp and Hugh G Patterton

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:34

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The Dact family of scaffold proteins was discovered by virtue of binding to Dvl proteins central to Wnt and Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) signaling. Subsequently Dact proteins have been linked to a growing list o...

    Authors: Saul Kivimäe, Xiao Yong Yang and Benjamin NR Cheyette

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:33

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged or deer tick, is the main vector of Lyme disease in the United States. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered hundreds of different proteins e...

    Authors: Sivakamasundari Pichu, Emine B Yalcin, José MC Ribeiro, Roberta S King and Thomas N Mather

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:32

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The importance of understanding the detailed mechanism of cysteine biosynthesis in bacteria is underscored by the fact that cysteine is the only sulfur donor for all cellular components containing reduced sulf...

    Authors: Shrijita Banerjee, Mary K Ekka and Sangaralingam Kumaran

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:31

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Structural comparison between bacterial CueO and fungal laccases has suggested that a charged residue Glu (E106) in CueO replaces the corresponding residue Phe in fungal laccases at the gate of the tunnel conn...

    Authors: Yadong Li, Zijun Gong, Xin Li, Yang Li and Xing-Guo Wang

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:30

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Previously, we have reported the presence of highly sulfated dermatans in solitary ascidians from the orders Phlebobranchia (Phallusia nigra) and Stolidobranchia (Halocynthia pyriformis and Styela plicata). Despi...

    Authors: Eliene O Kozlowski, Paula C Lima, Cristina P Vicente, Tito Lotufo, Xingfeng Bao, Kazuyuki Sugahara and Mauro SG Pavão

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:29

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:37

  15. ATP binding is essential for the bioactivity of several growth factors including nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Vascular endothelial growth factor isofor...

    Authors: Ronald E Gast, Simone König, Karsten Rose, Katja B Ferenz and Josef Krieglstein

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:28

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Elevated numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been implicated in certain cancers. Depletion of Tregs has been shown to increase anti-tumor immunity. Tregs also play a critical role in the suppression of aut...

    Authors: Derek V Chan, Ally-Khan Somani, Andrew B Young, Jessica V Massari, Jennifer Ohtola, Hideaki Sugiyama, Edina Garaczi, Denise Babineau, Kevin D Cooper and Thomas S McCormick

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:27

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Fibin was initially discovered as a secreted signal molecule essential for pectoral fin bud initiation in zebrafish. Currently, there is little information about the molecular architecture and biological relev...

    Authors: Johannes Lakner, Christian Seyer, Thomas Hermsdorf and Torsten Schöneberg

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:26

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The generation of energy from glucose is impaired in diabetes and can be compensated by other substrates like fatty acids (Randle cycle). Little information is available on amino acids (AA) as alternative ener...

    Authors: Sietse J Koopmans, Jan VanderMeulen, Jan Wijdenes, Henk Corbijn and Ruud Dekker

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:25

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory actions. The assembly of trimeric, hexameric, and higher molecular weight (HMW) species of adiponectin is a topic of ...

    Authors: David B Briggs, Rebecca M Giron, Pamela R Malinowski, Martha Nuñez and Tsu-Shuen Tsao

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:24

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The repertoire of the antigen-binding receptors originates from the rearrangement of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genetic loci in a process known as V(D)J recombination. The initial site-specific DNA cle...

    Authors: Janeen L Arbuckle, Negar S Rahman, Shuying Zhao, William Rodgers and Karla K Rodgers

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:23

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Two isoforms of the enzyme adenosine kinase (AdK), which differ at their N-terminal ends, are found in mammalian cells. However, there is no information available regarding the unique functional aspects or reg...

    Authors: Xianying A Cui, Tanvi Agarwal, Bhag Singh and Radhey S Gupta

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:22

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The inorganic (Pi) phosphate transporter (PiT) family comprises known and putative Na+- or H+-dependent Pi-transporting proteins with representatives from all kingdoms. The mammalian members are placed in the out...

    Authors: Pernille Bøttger and Lene Pedersen

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:21

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Adenine and guanine phosphates are involved in a number of biological processes such as cell signaling, metabolism and enzymatic cofactor functions. Binding sites in proteins for these ligands are often detect...

    Authors: Ahmad Firoz, Adeel Malik, Karl H Joplin, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Vivekanand Jha and Shandar Ahmad

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:20

    Content type: Research article

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  24. LINE-1s (L1, Long Interspersed Element-1) are the most abundant autonomous non-LTR retrotransposons in the human genome and replicate by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Full-length L1 encodes two...

    Authors: Lixin Dai, Qing Huang and Jef D Boeke

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:18

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Uncharacterized proteases naturally expressed by bacterial pathogens represents important topic in infectious disease research, because these enzymes may have critical roles in pathogenicity and cell physiolog...

    Authors: Keehwan Kwon, Jeremy Hasseman, Saeeda Latham, Carissa Grose, Yu Do, Robert D Fleischmann, Rembert Pieper and Scott N Peterson

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:17

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Black tea is, second only to water, the most consumed beverage globally. Previously, the inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 was shown by dietary polyphenols and epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main po...

    Authors: Arumugam Rajavelu, Zumrad Tulyasheva, Rakesh Jaiswal, Albert Jeltsch and Nikolai Kuhnert

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:16

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway pathology is a fatal, autosomal, recessive genetic disease characterized by extensive lung inflammation. After induction by TNF-α, elevated concentrations of several pro-inflammator...

    Authors: Monica Borgatti, Irene Mancini, Nicoletta Bianchi, Alessandra Guerrini, Ilaria Lampronti, Damiano Rossi, Gianni Sacchetti and Roberto Gambari

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:15

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The Lewisx trisaccharide, also referred to as the CD15 antigen, is a diagnostic marker used to distinguish Hodgkin's lymphoma from other lymphocytic cancers. However, the role of such fucosylated structures remai...

    Authors: Alex S Powlesland, Maria Marcela Barrio, José Mordoh, Paul G Hitchen, Anne Dell, Kurt Drickamer and Maureen E Taylor

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:13

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The majority of peroxisomal matrix proteins destined for translocation into the peroxisomal lumen are recognised via a C-terminal Peroxisomal Target Signal type 1 by the cycling receptor Pex5p. The only structure...

    Authors: Chris P Williams, Nicole Schueller, Colin A Thompson, Marlene van den Berg, Simon D Van Haren, Ralf Erdmann, Charles S Bond, Ben Distel, Wolfgang Schliebs, Matthias Wilmanns and Will A Stanley

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:12

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The thermostable β-glucosidase (Tn Bgl1A) from Thermotoga neapolitana is a promising biocatalyst for hydrolysis of glucosylated flavonoids and can be coupled to extraction methods using pressurized hot water. Hyd...

    Authors: Samiullah Khan, Tania Pozzo, Márton Megyeri, Sofia Lindahl, Anders Sundin, Charlotta Turner and Eva Nordberg Karlsson

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:11

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl ester...

    Authors: Benjamin Franken, Thorsten Eggert, Karl E Jaeger and Martina Pohl

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:10

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The aim of this study was to determine the catalytic activity and physiological role of myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) from Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258. MCRA from B. breve NCIMB 702258 was cloned, se...

    Authors: Eva Rosberg-Cody, Alena Liavonchanka, Cornelia Göbel, R Paul Ross, Orla O'Sullivan, Gerald F Fitzgerald, Ivo Feussner and Catherine Stanton

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:9

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Breakpoint cluster region (Bcr) is a multi-domain protein that contains a C-terminal GTPase activating protein (GAP) domain for Rac. Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) regulates Bcr by direct binding to its GAP domain. ...

    Authors: Sun-Ju Yi, John Groffen and Nora Heisterkamp

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:8

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Protein kinase A type I (PKAI) and PKAII are expressed in most of the eukaryotic cells examined. PKA is a major receptor for cAMP and specificity is achieved partly through tissue-dependent expression and subc...

    Authors: Øystein Stakkestad, Anja CV Larsen, Anne-Katrine Kvissel, Sissel Eikvar, Sigurd Ørstavik and Bjørn S Skålhegg

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:7

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II an...

    Authors: Yasuo Yamakoshi, Takatoshi Nagano, Jan CC Hu, Fumiko Yamakoshi and James P Simmer

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:6

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) are three closely related nuclear hormone receptors in the NR1H and 1I subfamilies that share the property of being activ...

    Authors: Matthew D Krasowski, Ni Ai, Lee R Hagey, Erin M Kollitz, Seth W Kullman, Erica J Reschly and Sean Ekins

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:5

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The human thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) plays a dual role in base excision repair of G:U/T mismatches and in transcription. Regulation of TDG activity by SUMO-1 conjugation was shown to act on both functions. ...

    Authors: Caroline Smet-Nocca, Jean-Michel Wieruszeski, Hélène Léger, Sebastian Eilebrecht and Arndt Benecke

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:4

    Content type: Research article

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  38. General iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis proceeds through assembly of a transient cluster on IscU followed by its transfer to a recipient apo-protein. The efficiency of the second step is increased by the pres...

    Authors: Anna K Füzéry, Jenny J Oh, Dennis T Ta, Larry E Vickery and John L Markley

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:3

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In eukaryotic cells, there are two sub-pathways of nucleotide excision repair (NER), the global genome (gg) NER and the transcription-coupled repair (TCR). TCR can preferentially remove the bulky DNA lesions l...

    Authors: Jing An, Tianyi Yang, Yuecheng Huang, Feng Liu, Jingfen Sun, Yu Wang, Qingzhi Xu, Dechang Wu and Pingkun Zhou

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:2

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Like all tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5α consists of RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains, with a C-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain. Although structures have been determ...

    Authors: Alak K Kar, Youdong Mao, Gregory Bird, Loren Walensky and Joseph Sodroski

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2011 12:1

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Cell biologists face the need to rapidly analyse their proteins of interest in order to gain insight into their function. Often protein purification, cellular localisation and Western blot analyses can be mult...

    Authors: Ji Hun Kim, Tsz M Chang, Alison N Graham, K H Andy Choo, Paul Kalitsis and Damien F Hudson

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:50

    Content type: Methodology article

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  42. The reversible oxidation of protein SH groups has been considered to be the basis of redox regulation by which changes in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations may control protein function. Several proteins bec...

    Authors: Luísa Cyrne, Fernando Antunes, Ana Sousa-Lopes, João Diaz-Bérrio and H Susana Marinho

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:49

    Content type: Research article

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  43. RhoGDI proteins are important regulators of the small GTPase Rac, because they shuttle Rac from the cytoplasm to membranes and also protect Rac from activation, deactivation and degradation. How the binding an...

    Authors: Fei Fei, Soo-Mi Kweon, Leena Haataja, Paulo De Sepulveda, John Groffen and Nora Heisterkamp

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:48

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Glutamic peptidases, from the MEROPS family G1, are a distinct group of peptidases characterized by a catalytic dyad consisting of a glutamate and a glutamine residue, optimal activity at acidic pH and insensi...

    Authors: Kenneth Jensen, Peter R Østergaard, Reinhard Wilting and Søren F Lassen

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:47

    Content type: Research article

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  45. The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum genome possesses a 25-kb intronless open reading frame (ORF) that predicts a multifunctional Type I fatty acid synthase (CpFAS1) with at least 21 enzymatic domains. Althoug...

    Authors: Guan Zhu, Xiangyu Shi and Xiaomin Cai

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:46

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Chaperones facilitate proper folding of peptides and bind to misfolded proteins as occurring during periods of cell stress. Complexes of peptides with chaperones induce peptide-directed immunity. Here we analy...

    Authors: Volker Burkart, Rahel K Siegenthaler, Elias Blasius, Koen Vandenbroeck, Iraide Alloza, Waltraud Fingberg, Nanette C Schloot, Philipp Christen and Hubert Kolb

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:44

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Immobilized recombinant perlecan domain I (PlnDI) binds and modulates the activity of heparin-binding growth factors, in vitro. However, activities for PlnDI, in solution, have not been reported. In this study, w...

    Authors: Arivalagan Muthusamy, Carlton R Cooper and Ronald R Gomes Jr

    Citation: BMC Biochemistry 2010 11:43

    Content type: Research article

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