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Table 1 Adverse effects of the environment and aging on the proteasome system. The table summarizes diseases where proteasomes are known to be implicated and the impact that aging and environmental effectors could have on their development.

From: Role of proteasomes in disease

Disease Impairment of proteasomes Proteasome population affected Symptoms References
Cardiac dysfunction     
- transient ischemia/reperfusion decreased activity 26S proteasomes apoptosis 89, 90
- pressure overload decreased activity 26S proteasomes apoptosis 68
- inclusion body myositis decreased activity 26S proteasomes, induction of immunoproteasome inclusion bodies 83
134
Cataract formation decreased activity 20S proteasomes aggregation of (oxidized) proteins 66
Neurodegenerative diseases     
- Alzheimer's decreased activity 20S/26S proteasomes β-amyloid plaques/tau tangles, neuronal loss 77
78
- Parkinson's decreased activity 20S/26S proteasomes Lewy bodies, neuronal loss 73
- amyotrophic lateral sclerosis decreased activity 20S/26S proteasomes SOD1 aggregates, motor neuron loss 75
- Huntington's decreased activity 20S/26S proteasomes, induction of immunoproteasome poly-glutamine inclusions, neuronal dysfunction/loss 76
135
Viral infections     
- HIV/adenovirus decreased expression, inhibition immunoproteasomes, 20S proteasomes impaired immune response 156
182
- hepatitis B inhibition 20S/26S proteasomes hepatitis 183
- HTLV activation nuclear proteasomes neurological inflammation 184
Autoimmune/rheumatoid diseases     
- Sjogren's syndrome decreased expression subunit β1i tissue destruction 185
Cancer     
- multiple myeloma
- renal carcinoma
increased activity, depressed expression 20S/26S proteasomes, immunoproteasomes suppression of apoptosis, induction of proliferaton 122
142,145
Cachexia     
- sepsis increased activity 20S/26S proteasomes Inflammation, muscle protein wasting 100
- metabolic acidosis increased activity 20S/26S proteasomes Inflammation, muscle protein wasting 97