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Table 2 Insulin-stimulated amino acid clearance rates during the steady state phase of the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic euaminoacidaemic clamp in 4 normal and 4 diabetic pigs in experiment 1, when both normal and diabetic pigs were infused with an amino acid mixture (Table 1) designed for normal pigs.

From: The existence of an insulin-stimulated glucose and non-essential but not essential amino acid substrate interaction in diabetic pigs

Plasma amino acid Normal pigs
(mL/kg·min )
Diabetic pigs
(mL/kg·min)
Essential:   
Arginine 4.3 ± 0.8 10.4 ± 2.3*
Histidine 4.0 ± 0.8 4.2 ± 0.5
Isoleucine 5.2 ± 0.9 5.5 ± 1.6
Leucine 5.9 ± 0.9 6.8 ± 1.2
Lysine 5.6 ± 1.2 6.9 ± 0.5
Methionine 9.2 ± 1.1 16.3 ± 2.0
Phenylalanine 5.8 ± 0.8 10.2 ± 1.6*
Threonine 4.5 ± 0.4 8.9 ± 0.8
Tryptophan 2.1 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 1.2
Tyrosine 5.6 ± 0.6 19.8 ± 5.5*
Valine 2.3 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.7
Non-essential:   
Alanine 2.8 ± 0.2 10.7 ± 2.8*
Asparagine 6.5 ± 0.6 15.0 ± 1.9
Aspartate 1.7 ± 0.2 4.8 ± 1.1*
Cysteine 2.4 ± 0.3 5.8 ± 1.1*
Glutamine 1.7 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 1.3*
Glutamate 4.1 ± 0.4 14.3 ± 2.1
Glycine 2.3 ± 0.3 6.6 ± 1.6*
Proline 3.9 ± 0.4 6.9 ± 0.9*
Serine 5.3 ± 0.6 14.2 ± 3.1*
  1. Mean ± SEM, * P < .05, † P < .01 and ‡ P < .001 compared to normal pigs.